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absolute in grammar, syntactically independent, or nearly so, as "the weather being chilly" in the sentence "The weather being chilly, we stayed home." [1/7 definitions]
adverb in grammar, a word that modifies a verb, adjective, other adverb, adverbial phrase, or sentence.
alliteration repetition of the same consonant sound in the stressed or initial syllables of words in a phrase or sentence.
anacoluthon a sudden shift within a sentence from one grammatical structure to another, esp. when done for rhetorical effect.
anastrophe reversal of the normal sentence structure or word order, as in the sentence "To the battlefield rode they".
apodosis in a conditional sentence, the clause that expresses the result or conclusion, sometimes beginning with "then". (Cf. protasis.)
apposition in grammar, the relationship, esp. of the second to the first, of two nouns or noun equivalents that are placed together in a sentence without a connecting conjunction, as in "Ed Smith, the famous athlete". [1/3 definitions]
auxiliary verb a verb used in conjunction with a main verb in a clause that assists the main verb in reflecting aspects, voices, moods, and tenses. In the sentence "They have escaped," the main verb is "escaped," and the auxiliary verb is "have."
capital letter a letter of the alphabet written or printed larger than and in a somewhat different form from its lower-case equivalent and used to designate a proper noun or initiate a sentence.
case1 in grammar, the syntactical relationship of a noun, pronoun, or adjective to other words in a sentence, indicated by its inflection or its position in the sentence. [1/9 definitions]
clause in grammar, a sequence of words having a subject and a verb and forming one part of a compound or complex sentence, or all of a simple sentence. [1/2 definitions]
comma a punctuation mark (,) used to separate words, phrases, or other elements in a sentence, particulars in a list, or thousands in written numerals, or to indicate a pause, as in poetry.
commutation a substitution of a milder for a more severe criminal sentence. [1/3 definitions]
commute to reduce the severity of (a prison sentence). [1/7 definitions]
complement in grammar, a word or phrase that is necessary to complete a construction, such as "happy" in the sentence "He seems happy," or "a judge" in the sentence "She became a judge." [1/7 definitions]
complex sentence a sentence composed of a main or independent clause and one or more dependent or subordinate clauses, such as "This is an independent clause, whereas this is a dependent clause".
compound1 of or pertaining to a word made up of two or more lexically distinct parts or a sentence made up of two or more main clauses. [1/12 definitions]
compound sentence a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses, which are usu. linked by a conjunction, such as "The sky darkened and the wind howled".
condemn to order punishment to be given to; convict or sentence. [1/5 definitions]
construe to explain the grammatical uses of words in a clause or sentence. [2/6 definitions]
context the language surrounding a particular usage of a word, phrase, or sentence, or the situation in which the piece of language is used. [1/2 definitions]