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11th Amendment an amendment to the U.S. Constitution that guarantees a level of sovereign immunity to states by forbidding federal courts from ruling on cases brought against a state by a citizen of another state. The 11th Amendment, ratified in 1795, was passed after the Supreme Court ruled, in Chisholm v. Georgia, in favor of a citizen of South Carolina who was trying to recover debt that was owed him by the state of Georgia. The passage of the amendment overturned this ruling.
chevron an insignia or badge of rank having stripes arranged in a V or inverted V and worn by policemen, noncommissioned officers, and the like.
five the number represented by the Arabic numeral 5 and the Roman numeral V. [1/3 definitions]
Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu an American of Japanese descent who, during World War II, was one of few Japanese-Americans to openly defy the relocation orders of the U.S. Government. Korematsu was arrested and sent to an internment center in 1942, and his challenge to the constitutionality of forced relocation was ruled against by the Supreme Court in 1944 in Korematsu v. United States (b.1919--d.2005).
fricative a fricative consonant, such as "f," "v," or "s". [1/2 definitions]
Gordon Hirabayashi an American of Japanese descent who, during World War II, was one of few Japanese-Americans to openly defy the relocation orders of the U.S. Government. He challenged the constitutionality of the application of curfews for minority groups, and his case eventually went to the Supreme Court, where he was unanimously ruled against in Hirabayashi v. United States in 1943 (b.1918--).
herringbone a V-shaped pattern of rows of short parallel lines alternately slanted in opposite directions. [1/5 definitions]
labiodental articulated with the upper lip and lower front teeth touching, as the sounds in English of "f" and "v". [1/2 definitions]
Minoru Yasui an American of Japanese descent who, during World War II, was one of few Japanese-Americans to openly violate curfew restrictions and defy the relocation orders of the U.S. Government. He challenged the constitutionality of the application of curfews to people based on their ethnicity, and his case eventually went to the Supreme Court, where he was unanimously ruled against in Yasui v. United States in 1943, in a companion case to Hirabayashi v. United States (b.1915--d.1986).
notch a V-shaped cut or indentation in an edge or object. [1/7 definitions]
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. an influential U.S. Supreme Court justice (1902-1932), known for exercising judicial restraint and cited frequently for the opinion he wrote for Schenck v. United States, in which he argued that freedom of speech could be limited only in cases when particular acts of expression presented a "clear and present danger" to the country or its people (b.1841--d.1935).
Roman numeral any of the letters I, V, X, L, C, D, or M, used in the Roman system of notation, in which a letter followed by one of equal or lesser value indicates addition of the two, a letter followed by one of greater value indicates that the first is to be subtracted from the second, and a bar over a letter multiplies it by 1,000.
spirant in phonetics, a consonantal speech sound produced by the breath pushed through the constricted opening of the mouth and lips, as the "sh" or "v" sound in English; fricative. [1/2 definitions]
v3 something shaped like a V. [2/3 definitions]
vanadium a chemical element that has twenty-three protons in each nucleus and that occurs in a variety of compounds, or in pure form as a bright white, lustrous, ductile solid metal used in some alloys. (symbol: V)
V neck a neckline that is V-shaped in front, as on some sweaters.
volt1 a unit of electromotive force equal to the force that carries one ampere of current through one ohm resistance. (abbr.: V)
V-shaped having the shape of the letter "V".
V-type engine an automobile engine in which the cylinders are lined up in two rows that are set at an angle to each other, forming a V.
widow's peak a V-shaped point formed by the hairline in the top center of the forehead.