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Doctor of Philosophy the highest doctorate awarded by a university, esp. in the humanities or sciences. (abbr.: Ph.D.)
East Coast the easternmost part of the United States, consisting of the states along the Atlantic coast, often esp. the region stretching from Maine to Washington D.C.
Eastern Roman Empire the eastern division of the Roman Empire, comprising the Turkish peninsula and part of southeastern Europe, esp. from 395 to 476 A.D., after which it is called the Byzantine Empire. (Cf. Western Roman Empire.)
ergocalciferol a sterol that can be converted into vitamin D and added to foods.
Essene a member of an ascetic Jewish sect of mystics that existed from the second century B.C. to the second century A.D.
Goth a member of a Germanic people who invaded the Roman Empire during the third through fifth centuries A.D. [1/2 definitions]
hegira (cap.) Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina in 622 A.D. [1/2 definitions]
Hillel a Palestinian rabbi who formulated the earliest rules for the interpretation of Jewish scripture (60? B.C.-9? A.D.).
Holy Roman Empire the empire of central European, Germanic-speaking nations and Italy, beginning with Charlemagne's reign as Roman emperor in 800 A.D. or the crowning of Otto I in 962, and ending in 1806.
Hun any of a fierce, warring Asian people who, under Attila and others, ravaged much of eastern and central Europe in the fourth and fifth centuries A.D. [1/2 definitions]
Jesus Christ the founder of Christianity (b.4? B.C.--d.29? A.D.); according to the New Testament, the savior foretold by Isaiah, considered by Christians to be the Messiah and son of God; Jesus of Nazareth. (See Christ.)
Manichaeism a dualistic religious system originating in the third century A.D., which attempts to unite elements from Gnostic Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and other sources, and which is considered by the Roman Catholic Church to be heretical.
Marcus Aurelius a Stoic philosopher who was emperor of Rome in 161-180 A.D. (b.121--d.180 A.D.).
Merovingian of or pertaining to the line of kings who ruled over ancient France from about 500 A.D. to 751 A.D. [1/2 definitions]
Middle Ages the period of European history between antiquity and the Renaissance, from 500 A.D. to about 1500 A.D.
Middle High German the German language as it was spoken and written in central and southern Germany between 1100 A.D. and 1500 A.D.
Muhammad an Arab prophet and the founder of Islam (570-632 A.D.).
National Mall a large grassy open area in Washington D.C., surrounded by museums and monuments, designed for use by the public.
Neoplatonism a philosophical school and doctrine founded by Plotinus in the third century A.D. that asserts that all existence flows from a single source, with which the soul seeks to unite.
Nero a Roman emperor (37-68 A.D.).
Nicene Creed a formal statement of the basic doctrines of Christianity, first adopted at a church council in Nicaea in 325 A.D. and later expanded to forms generally accepted by western Christianity.