Category: Academic Vocabulary of the Day
uhn d@r e stih meIt
to appraise at too low a quantity, rate, strength, value, or the like.
The press underestimated the boxer’s endurance and wrongly predicted the outcome of the fight.
The building collapsed because the weight of the roof was underestimated.
Don’t underestimate yourself; you are smart enough and qualified enough to do this job.
The government underestimated both the extent of the damage and the cost of the repairs.
pi n@ laIz [or] pe n@ laIz
1. to inflict a penalty on (a person or group).
The skater was penalized for omitting a required jump.
The judge penalized the company for unfair hiring practices.
2. to declare punishable or inflict a punishment for (an act, offense, or the like).
This type of offense is penalized severely in this state.
3. to impose a disadvantage or handicap on.
The educational system penalizes children whose parents are unwilling or incapable of giving them extra help.
to announce or symbolize the approach of; proclaim.
The media heralded the next royal wedding, which would take place the following spring.
Each year the falling leaves herald the approach of winter.
The transistor heralded a new age in electronics.
1. a person who conveys or announces official news; messenger
The herald announced the arrival of the king.
2. a person or thing that signals the beginning or approach of something.
The daffodil is a herald of spring.
for tih faI
1. to provide with fortifications, as against military attack.
The structure was fortified with thick stone walls.
The castle was fortified with heavy canon.
2. to provide additional strength, resistance, or energy to; reinforce or invigorate.
The concrete is fortified with steel.
The hearty soup fortified the patients.
3. to encourage or strengthen mentally or morally.
Fortified by their discovery, the researchers increased their pace.
Early morning meditation fortifies me.
4. to lend support to; confirm.
This new evidence fortified their theory.
1. to formally change by rephrasing, or to add to or subtract from (a legislative bill, a contract, a treaty, or the like).
The bill will be amended so that it will affect more businesses than before.
A movement has begun to amend the constitution.
2. to make better or make right; improve; rectify.
The prime minister pledged to amend the country’s labor practices.
The government has made promises to the victims but has done little to amend the situation that caused the disaster.