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colonial of or pertaining to the thirteen British colonies that became the United States, or to the period before they achieved independence. [1/5 definitions]
complement in grammar, a word or phrase that is necessary to complete a construction, such as "happy" in the sentence "He seems happy," or "a judge" in the sentence "She became a judge." [1/7 definitions]
Eocene of, relating to, or designating the geological epoch between the Paleocene and Oligocene of the Tertiary Period, from approximately 54 million to 38 million years ago, when modern mammals became dominant. [1/2 definitions]
Falange a fascist organization established in 1933 that became the only official political party of Spain under the dictatorship of Franco. [1/2 definitions]
great auk a large flightless North Atlantic auk that became extinct in the mid-nineteenth century.
Harriet Tubman American abolitionist who escaped slavery yet returned to the South to rescue others, making use of the Underground Railroad. During the Civil War, Tubman acted as a scout and spy for the Union Army. After the war, she became an activist for the rights of women. (b. 1822?--d. 1913).
Helen Keller deaf-blind pupil of Anne Sullivan who became a celebrated U.S. author, lecturer, and social activist (b.1880--d.1968).
Jackie Robinson born Jack Roosevelt Robinson, U.S. professional baseball player who in 1947 became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball(b.1919--d.1972).
Juneteenth the anniversary and celebration of the day, June 19, 1865, on which the abolition of slavery in the Confederate states was announced in Texas by Union Army forces. Before this date, slaves in Texas, part of the Confederacy, had no way of knowing that they had been freed on January 1, 1863 by the Emancipation Proclamation; thus, June 19th, now a Federal holiday, is celebrated each year in commemoration of the end of slavery in the United States. Technically, all slaves became free in the United States upon the adoption of the 13th Amendment at the end of 1865. The amendment abolished slavery everywhere, including in those slave-owning states that had not joined the Confederacy.
Lynette Woodard U.S. professional basketball player, who in 1985 became the first female member of the Harlem Globetrotters (b. 1959).
Mesozoic of, relating to, or designating the geological era between the Paleozoic and the Cenozoic, from approximately 220 million to 65 million years ago, when dinosaurs appeared and became extinct and ferns were abundant. [1/2 definitions]
Mia Hamm U.S. professional soccer player and Olympic gold medalist, who at the age of 19 became the youngest woman to win a World Cup championship; born Mariel Margaret Hamm (b.1972).
Nelson Mandela South African statesman, anti-apartheid activist, and Nobel Peace Prize winner, who was held as a political prisoner for 27 years and became the first democratically elected and first black President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999 (b. 1918).
Permian of, relating to, or designating the last geological period of the Paleozoic Era, from approximately 280 million to 220 million years ago, when reptiles became prominent, major mountain ranges such as the Appalachians formed, and great glaciers appeared in the Southern Hemisphere. [1/2 definitions]
Plymouth a U.S. town in southeastern Massachusetts. In 1620, English colonists known as the Pilgrims established a settlement called Plymouth Colony in this location, which later became the town of Plymouth.
Robin Hood in English legend, an outlaw of the twelfth century who became famous for robbing the rich to help the poor.
saber-toothed tiger any of various large wild cats that became extinct in the Pleistocene period, characterized by long upper canine teeth.
Serena Williams U.S. professional tennis player, who in 1999 became the first African American woman since Althea Gibson to win a Grand Slam tournament (b.1981).
Siddhartha an Indian prince who became a religious philosopher and teacher known as Buddha; founder of Buddhism; Siddhartha Gautama (563?-483? B.C.). (See Buddha.)
Star Chamber a former English tribunal, composed of royal councillors, that became notorious for its secret sessions, arbitrary judgments, and severe punishments. [1/2 definitions]
Taíno a member of an American Indian tribe that inhabited the Bahamas and parts of the Antilles before the arrival of Columbus and that eventually became extinct after Spanish colonization of the islands. [1/2 definitions]