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actinide series the series of chemical elements, mostly synthetic and all radioactive, that have from eighty-nine to 103 protons per atom.
aldehyde in chemistry, any of a group of organic compounds, such as formaldehyde, the molecule of which contains a terminal carbon atom bound separately to a hydrogen and an oxygen atom.
-amine containing the amino group, which has one atom of nitrogen and two of hydrogen.
atomic bomb an extremely destructive weapon, the explosive power of which derives from the immense amount of energy suddenly released when the nuclei of uranium 235 or plutonium atoms are split; atom bomb.
atomic energy the energy that is released by an atom in nuclear reactions such as fission or fusion. [1/2 definitions]
atomic mass unit a unit equal to one twelfth of the mass of an atom of the most abundant kind of carbon, equal to 1.6605 times 1024 gram.
atomic number the number of protons or positive electrical charges in the nucleus of one atom of a given element. [1/2 definitions]
atomic weight the average weight of one atom of a given element, expressed in atomic mass units.
at. wt. abbreviation of "atomic weight," the average weight of one atom of a given element, expressed in atomic mass units.
benzene ring the graphic representation of the benzene molecule or its derivatives as a hexagon with a carbon atom at each of its six points, and with attached atoms of hydrogen or other elements.
bichloride a chemical compound in which there are two atoms of chlorine for each atom of another element or group; dichloride.
carbonyl a metal compound containing a radical of one atom of carbon and one of oxygen, or this radical itself.
carboxyl a chemical group containing one atom of carbon, two of oxygen, and one of hydrogen, present in many organic acids.
covalence the number of pairs of electrons that an atom can share with other atoms. [1/2 definitions]
cyanide a chemical compound that contains one carbon and one nitrogen atom together with another element such as potassium or sodium, both of which form extremely poisonous substances. [1/2 definitions]
deuteron a particle composed of one proton and one neutron that is equivalent to the nucleus of a deuterium atom and that has a positive charge.
dioxide a compound containing two atoms of oxygen bound to a single atom of another element.
electron a negatively charged particle, considered a fundamental unit of matter, that exists independently or outside the nucleus of an atom.
element any of the substances, now numbering 107, that, being made up of only one type of atom, cannot be chemically separated into simpler substances. [1/6 definitions]
ether any of a group of compounds in which two hydrocarbon groups are attached to an oxygen atom. [1/4 definitions]
excite in physics, to raise (an atom, particle, or molecule) to a state of higher energy. [1/5 definitions]