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alanine a nonessential amino acid that is found in proteins.
-amine containing the amino group, which has one atom of nitrogen and two of hydrogen.
arginine an amino acid found in most proteins that is essential in the human diet.
asparagine a nonessential amino acid found in proteins that is derived from aspartate.
aspartame an artificial sweetener about two hundred times sweeter than sucrose, synthesized from amino acids and used as a low-calorie sugar substitute in manufactured soft drinks, cereals, cookies, and the like.
aspartate the ionic form of aspartic acid, which is a nonessential amino acid found in proteins.
aspartic acid a nonessential amino acid found in proteins.
codon in biology, a triplet of nucleotides in the messenger RNA, which specifies amino acids in the synthesis of protein molecules.
cysteine a sulfur-containing, semi-essential amino acid occurring in proteins. One cysteine within a protein can react with another to form a disulfide bond.
diamine any of various chemical compounds containing two amino groups.
dopa an amino acid that is converted to dopamine by an enzyme in the bloodstream, an isomer of which, L-dopa, is used to treat Parkinson's disease.
erepsin an enzyme mixture in the small intestines that contributes to the breakdown of proteins into amino acids.
folacin a compound found in leafy green vegetables, essential in human nutrition for the production of blood cells, amino acids, and nucleic acids, and considered to be part of the vitamin B complex.
folate a water-soluble B vitamin, found in leafy green vegetables, nuts, and legumes, that is essential for the production of blood cells, amino acids, and nucleic acids; also known as folacin, folic acid, and vitamin B9.
genetic code the rules governing the order in which amino acids are added to a nascent protein as it is being synthesized according to the order of nucleotides in DNA and RNA molecules.
glutamic acid a nonessential amino acid found in proteins that is used as a salt flavoring on meats and other foods.
glutamine a nonessential amino acid that is a component of proteins.
glycine a simple, nonessential amino acid found in proteins.
histidine an aromatic amino acid, essential in humans and other animals, that is found in proteins.
homocysteine An amino acid that is an intermediate in the metabolism of methionine. In humans, elevated levels of homocysteine in blood are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.
isoleucine an amino acid, essential in the diet of humans and other animals, that is found in proteins.