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colchicine a poisonous alkaloid used to cause chromosome doubling in experiments and as medicine for gout.
diploid in biology, having two of each non-sex-determining chromosome in each cell. [3 definitions]
gene a section of a chromosome that determines the structure of a single protein or part of one, thereby influencing a particular hereditary characteristic, such as eye color, or a particular biochemical reaction.
Klinefelter's syndrome a congenital disorder that causes sterility in males, caused by an extra X chromosome.
locus the position of a gene on a chromosome. [1/3 definitions]
mongolism (outdated; no longer in scientific use; sometimes cap.) the abnormal condition of a person born with an additional chromosome, characterized by a flattened skull, slanted eyes, often decreased mental facility, and partial deafness; Down's syndrome.
mutate to display or cause to display a physical trait or characteristic that is different from one's parent or parents as a result of a change within a gene or chromosome.
plasmid a DNA-containing, self-reproducing element in the cytoplasm of some bacteria which exists outside the chromosome, used in recombinant DNA technology because it can alter a hereditary characteristic when introduced into another bacterium.
sex-linked of a gene or genetic trait, carried on the chromosome that determines gender.
translocation in genetics, the movement of a segment of chromosome to a new position on the same chromosome or a different chromosome, or the modified chromosome that results from this movement. [1/3 definitions]
trisomic having an extra chromosome in the cell in addition to the usual diploid number.
trivalent triple, esp. a chromosome that is formed by three homologous chromosomes. [1/2 definitions]
univalent in genetics, a chromosome that remains unpaired in synapsis. [1/2 definitions]
X chromosome the sex chromosome that occurs paired in females and singly in males, and is responsible for female sex characteristics. (Cf. Y chromosome.)
Y chromosome a sex chromosome that occurs only in males, paired with an X chromosome, and is responsible for male sex characteristics. (Cf. X chromosome.)