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Calvinism the teachings of John Calvin and his followers, which emphasized predestination, salvation by God's grace alone, and the authority of the Scriptures. [1/2 definitions]
Gnosticism an early Christian religious movement whose adherents believed in salvation through spiritual knowledge (gnosis), in the evil nature of the material world, and in the incorporeality of Jesus Christ, and which was condemned as a heresy by the Church Fathers.
Mahayana the later of two major branches of Buddhism, stressing universal salvation and disinterested concern for the welfare of others. (Cf. Hinayana.)
Pelagian of or concerning a doctrine, condemned as heresy by the Roman Catholic Church in 416 A.D., that denies original sin and asserts one's ability to achieve salvation through virtuous acts of free will.
reprobate beyond hope of salvation; damned. [1/4 definitions]
sacramentalism the belief in the efficacy of the sacraments, or the belief in the sacraments as a necessity in obtaining salvation.
universalism (often cap.) a theological doctrine that asserts the universal fatherhood of God and the final salvation of all people. [1/2 definitions]